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M.RPMER 




Glass _QJBJl3_S. 
Book , G. 3 
Copyright^ 

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A Journey to the Earth's 
Interior 



OR 



Have the Poles Really 
Been Discovered 




By 
MARSHALL B. GARDNER 



Profusely Illustrated 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR AT 

AURORA, ILLINOIS 

1913 



(3:3 



Copyright, 1913 

BY 

Marshall B. Gardner 
All Rights Reserved 



* » * 



©CI.A354817 



DEDICATED TO THE CON- 
TINUED PROGRESS OF 
SCIENCE AND THE SERV- 
ICE THAT IT CAN RENDER 
TO HUMANITY 




AUTHOR OF THE THEORY OF A CENTRAL SUN WITHIN 
THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction 9 

Wanted a Fair Hearing 10 

An Advance on Copernicus 12 

A Journey to the Earth's Interior 13 

How Did the Earth Evolve ? 14 

How the Nebula Condensed 17 

An Earth Without Poles 18 

What Did Peary Discover ? 19 

Why We Would Not Fall Through 20 

Two Worlds in the Making 23 

For Proof, See Mars 24 

Mars Has No Polar Ice Caps 27 

Mars Must Have Central Sun 28 

Clouds Inside a Planet 29 

Mars' Central Sun is Seen 30 

The Shadow of the Polar Opening 33 

Water On Mars — Where From 33 

What Does the Open Polar Sea Mean 37 

Nansen Is Baffled 38 

There Was No Ice in the North 39 

Where Do These Animals Live ? 40 

Mysterious Paradise of Flowers 41 

Where Did This Come From 42 

The Mammoth and the Mastodon 43 

The Mammoth Banquet 44 

Corroborative Evidence 45 

Between the Mammoth's Teeth 45 

Why the Mammoth Meat Was Fresh 46 

What the Mammoth Proves 47 

The Aurora Explained 48 

Electricity Does Not Explain 49 

The Central Sun's Corona 49 

What May Be Seen in the Earth's Interior 50 

[7] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

Why the Needle Dips 54 

First View of the Central Sun 57 

No Night Nor Seasons 58 

The Nature of Life in the Interior World. 61 

Through to the South Pole 62 

How Otherwise Explain Arctic Mysteries 64 

An Expedition to Open Up This Realm 66 

Discovery of Interior May Be Providential 68 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Portrait of the Author facing 4 ^ 

A Sectional View of the Earth's Interior facing 14 V 

A Photographic View of Ring Nebula and Spiral 

Nebula facing 20 tf 

Enlarged View of Mars facing 24 

Photographic View of Mars, Showing Circular 

White Spot facing 30 - 

The Earth Showing North Polar Opening facing 34 

The Earth Bisected Showing Central Sun facing 50 l 

Diagram Showing the Earth as a Hollow Sphere . . facing 54 |/ 

The Central Sun as it Would Appear to an 

Explorer facing 58 



[8] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

Introduction 

THE man whose acquaintance with cos- 
mogony and physiography is confined 
to what he learned in school and, per- 
haps, afterward read in popular publications, 
has certain very definite notions about the shape 
of the earth and the constitution of its interior. 
These notions, he thinks, are based upon the 
proven discoveries, or the impregnable theories 
of the scientists, and so he accepts them in blind 
faith. But the scientists themselves do not rest 
under the impression that they have solved 
every mystery that is buried in the bowels of 
the earth. While they hold to a general theory 
about the shape and constitution of the earth, 
that it is a rigid solid — a theory which is now 
beginning to supersede the earlier theory that 
it was a shell with a liquid interior — they admit 
that there are many questions raised by recent 
observations of facts which cannot be explained 
by their present theory. 

To the scientist, then, and also to the layman 
whose interest and encouragement may do so 
much for scientific advancement, when he sees in 
what direction it is tending and what results it 
may have, are the following pages addressed. In 
them will be found a recital of certain well 
known and fully authenticated facts of geogra- 
phy, exploration, and astronomy which have not 

[9] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

been satisfactorily explained by any of the 
theories of the shape and constitution of the 
earth so far held. Then, on the basis of these 
facts, a new theory is presented which I claim 
does explain them; does make them fit in with 
the accepted results of scientific investigation, 
and which does not conflict with any other rela- 
tive facts in the world, but unites them all in 
an intelligible manner. 

WANTED — A FAIR HEARING 

In any such attempt as this, two tendencies 
have to be overcome before an author can secure 
a fair hearing. The first is the conservatism of 
scientists who do not care to revise their theories 
— and especially when that revision is made 
necessary by discoveries which are made inde- 
pendently of the great universities. I think, 
however, that the array of confirmatory evi- 
dence which I have brought to bear upon my 
position will be sufficient to counteract this con- 
servatism and induce scientists to give my theory 
a respectful hearing and full discussion. The 
second adverse tendency which must be over- 
come is the erroneous notion of the general 
public that a scientific theory or hypothesis is, 
in reality, a final truth that must not be denied. 
The layman imagines that the scientists have 
some mysterious means of discovering the actual 
truth, and that once discovered it is final. In 

[10] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

this matter of the composition and shape of the 
earth, for instance, he thinks that the scientists 
actually know that the earth is a ball of a cer- 
tain density and composition. Only a short time 
ago, however, the scientists thought that the 
earth was a solid shell with a liquid interior — 
and any layman would have sworn this was true 
just because the scientists imagined it. Now the 
real fact of the matter is — and any scientist will 
admit it — that a scientific theory, such as either 
of the two just mentioned, does not represent 
an ultimate truth. It is simply an essay of the 
imagination to weld certain facts, which are not 
apparently related, into some sort of connection. 
For instance, we have the facts of gravitation, 
electricity and light, all acting through great 
spaces — and all having what are apparently 
common properties. To explain their action the 
scientists build up theories of wave motion 
through the ether. Now the layman accepts the 
luminiferous ether as a finality. But the scien- 
tist might discover some fact tomorrow which 
could not be explained on that assumption of a 
universal ether, and so he would have to con- 
struct a new theory more comprehensive than his 
former one, and which would make room for the 
new fact. I do not imply that such a theory is 
either likely or possible, but I simply give this 
as a convenient example of the same thing which 
I have done in the domain of cosmology. And 

[11] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

my point is, that a theory is good so long as it 
gives us such a view of the matter as will enable 
us to discover new facts, but good for that pur- 
pose only. 

AN ADVANCE ON COPERNICUS 

The Copernican system of astronomy was a 
step in advance of the Ptolemaic system just be- 
cause it enabled scientists to discover many new 
facts about the solar system which the error of 
the old view had hidden from their gaze. My 
own theory adds to the valuable results gained 
by the Copernican system, not by subverting it 
— for I imagine that no sane person would now 
try to do that — but by accepting it fully, and 
adding to it a different theory of the evolution 
of the several planets from their nebulae, and 
from this new theory of evolution deducing cer- 
tain presumptions about the interior of the 
earth. These presumptions I have supported by 
a wealth of facts discovered by the telescopic 
observations of astronomers of nebulae and one 
of our sister planets, Mars, and made by ex- 
plorers of the most fascinating parts of our own 
planet — the polar regions. 

The Author. 

Aurora, Illinois, July, 1913. 



[12] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

A Journey to the Earth's Interior 

— OR— 

Have the Poles Really Been 
Discovered 

MY OWN theory of the constitution and 
interior of the earth can best be under- 
stood by contrasting it with the two 
older theories. The first of these is that the 
earth is a mere shell of solid matter enclosing 
a vast body of material which is still at a suffi- 
ciently high temperature to retain its liquid con- 
dition. 

The strongest argument for this theory is the 
fact that volcanoes spout up molten lava which 
scientists supposed were fair samples of the ma- 
terials which were seething and boiling in the 
earth's interior. As against this idea we may 
urge the decisive fact that the earth has attained 
its present state without being torn to pieces. 
For if only a gradually forming crust separates 
the surface from this boiling ocean and confines 
it in the sphere except at a few volcanic points, 
one would naturally suppose that — at least in 
the days when the crust was thinner — the attrac- 
tion of the moon would cause tides in that inner 
ocean which would burst through the crust as 
quickly as it formed. But I adduce this argu- 
ment mainly for the benefit of the layman who 
imagines that that theory represents the final 

[13] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

truth of the matter. As a matter of fact a few 
scientists now admit that a liquid interior is not 
a tenable hypothesis any longer to account for 
the earth's constitution. 

HOW DID THE EARTH EVOLVE? 

The theory which is slowly beginning to gain 
ground among scientists at the present day is 
that the earth is a solid mass which Lord Kelvin 
has described as being "more rigid than glass," 
with its densest materials at the center. But his 
theory also carries with it certain inconsisten- 
cies, and so it has not been generally adopted, 
as reference to the current text-books in our 
schools will show. 

In most, if not all, of our schools today, the 
theory is being taught that the earth is a molten 
ball which has solidified on the outside, but only 
to a certain depth, and the center is a molten 
mass of lava only too ready to burst forth in the 
form of volcanoes. 

The orthodox astronomers tell us that the 
planetary system, of which the earth is a part, is 
the condensation of a nebula. According to them 
the nebula was at first indefinite in form and 
motion, and then gradually took on a spiral form 
and a circular motion. By this process it grad- 
ually formed a central nucleus of glowing vapor 
and an outer envelope. This central nucleus they 
say condensed down into our sun and the outer 

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A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

envelope broke up into fragments, each of which 
took on the spherical form by its own centri- 
petal attraction and afterward condensed itself 
to a planet. 

HOW THE NEBULA CONDENSED 

Now, in my theory, I recognize the validity 
of this description with an important difference. 
I see the spiral nebula; I see its central nucleus 
and its outer envelope, but I claim that the 
nebula did not contract and break up into a solar 
system, but was evolved into an individual 
planet. In other words, every planet in our 
solar system originally was an independent 
nebula which, in the course of time, condensed 
and took its place with the others that are held 
in the solar system by the attraction of the sun 
which is at the center of all their orbits. 

As I see it — and I am not speaking without 
strong confirmatory evidence to be developed 
later — what occurred was this: The condensa- 
tion described by the orthodox astronomers took 
place. The outer envelope, which was finally 
evolved into the crust or shell that surrounds 
the central nucleus of each planet, was formed 
of soluble matter thrown off by centrifugal 
action from the central nucleus in such manner 
that the envelope collected around the central 
nucleus at an equal distance therefrom, except 
in the vicinity of the polar regions. But the 

[17] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

envelope did not expand or extend to these 
points because the centrifugal action became less 
effective proportionately from the equatorial 
line or widest part of the spherical envelope. 

It is very probable that the adverse effect of 
the reduced centrifugal action near each axis of 
the new planet was, however, sufficiently offset 
by the tendency of the envelope to oscillate at 
each of its polar extremities during the earlier 
stages of its formation. Thus the attractive 
power of the particles of the matter of the en- 
velope upon one another, and the gradual hard- 
ening of this matter as the envelope passed from 
a gaseous to a liquid and then to a semi-solid and 
lastly to a solid condition, finally formed the 
polar openings described in the succeeding 
pages. Meanwhile the central nucleus has con- 
densed into a sun that illuminates the interior of 
the planet and whose light streams out of each 
of these polar openings. 

AN EARTH WITHOUT POLES? 

In other words, I claim that the earth orig- 
inally was a mass of nebulous matter projected 
from a nucleus in the form of a spiral which, 
through centrifugal action, evolved itself into a 
central nucleus surrounded by a wall or ring of 
nebulous material that was gradually condensed 
and cooled until it became a new planet with its 
central sun and polar openings, as is clearly 

[18] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

shown in the illustration on page 21. Such a 
configuration as that, is I believe — and shall 
endeavor to prove — the real one of the earth and 
of every other planet as well. 

It is only natural that such a revolutionary 
theory as this should be greeted with skepticism, 
but much of this skepticism is founded on mis- 
understanding of the theory. 

The first and most obvious objection — apart 
from the dogmatic assertion of the older notions 
which I have already discussed — is that polar 
exploration has demonstrated that the old idea 
of the solid polar caps is correct because the 
poles have been attained and no such polar open- 
ings were discovered as are there according to 
my theory. This objection, however, is based 
upon a profound misapprehension of my argu- 
ment. I claim that polar exploration really goes 
to support my theory, and I shall quote from 
the narratives of the chief explorers themselves, 
many facts and records of observations which 
substantiate this view. 

WHAT DID PEARY DISCOVER? 

But why, the reader may ask, did not Peary 
and other explorers find this great polar open- 
ing in their Arctic journeyings. The reason is 
very simple and can best be indicated by asking 
another question: Why did not man discover, 
by looking around him, that he was living on 

[19] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

the surface of what is, practically speaking, an 
immense sphere? And why did he for centuries 
think the earth was flat? Simply because the 
sphere was so large that he thought it was a 
flat surface, and that he should move over the 
surface of it appeared so natural that, when he 
was first told that it was a sphere, he began to 
wonder why he did not fall off — as he had no 
conception of the law of gravity. 

WHY WE WOULD NOT FALL THROUGH 

Now, in the case of the polar explorers, the 
same thing is true. They sail up to the outer 
edge of the immense polar opening, but that 
opening is so large that the downward curva- 
ture of its edge is not perceptible to them, and 
its diameter is so great that its other side is not 
visible to them. And to the reader's further 
error that they might "fall over the edge" I 
answer precisely as the scientists answered the 
people who wondered why they did not fall off 
the earth when they first heard it was a sphere: 
The force of gravity holds us in both cases. 

But, whereas, we are accustomed to think that 
the force of gravity pulls us toward the center 
of the earth, because we think it is solid, as a 
matter of fact there is, instead, a continuous 
force of gravity throughout the shell of the 
earth; and its "center," if we can still use that 
term, is in the center of the earth's crust, dis- 

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A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

tributed equally throughout its whole area, and 
therefore working equally in all places. 

This gravity therefore holds us down to the 
surface of the earth on whatever part of it we 
may be, and, as we journey up to the polar open- 
ing, around the immense curvature of the earth's 
crust and in along the interior surface, we are 
still held down to the surface without noticing 
any difference. It is this pull of gravity, coming 
equally from all directions, that also holds the 
central sun in its position in the center of the 
hollow earth. 

TWO WORLDS IN THE MAKING 

Additional evidence to support my theory of 
the formation of the earth and all planetary 
bodies from distinct nebulae also appears in 
photographs (see page 21) of the two nebulae 
known as the Spiral Nebula in Canes Venatica 
and of the Annular Nebula in Lyra. It will be 
observed as a striking fact that the former has 
almost divided itself into a wide circle of glow- 
ing vapor and a central nucleus, while the 
latter nebula has progressed somewhat farther 
in evolution and the separation is nearly com- 
plete. The Annular Nebula in Lyra, there- 
fore, appears as a central nucleus surrounded 
at a uniform distance by a ring of nebu- 
lous matter bulged at the center like the 
waist of a barrel. In this latter form the central 

[23] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

nucleus is more condensed than in the spiral 
nebula, and the enclosing ring which, of course, 
we see only in section in astronomical photo- 
graphs, is gradually assuming a spherical shape, 
leaving an opening at each polar extremity. 
These openings, as the mass liquifies and then 
solidifies, will shrink and define themselves more 
and more clearly. In this manner, then, do 
the earth and the other planets come to assume 
the form which my theory ascribes to them and 
which direct observation proves to be the case. 

FOR PROOF, SEE MARS 

By direct observation I refer to the accom- 
panying reproduction (see page 25) of an as- 
tronomical photograph of the planet Mars, 
magnified sufficiently to show the general fea- 
tures of one side of this planet's surface, and 
especially one of its so-called "polar snow-caps." 
For want of a better explanation the theory uni- 
versally held among scientists at the present time 
is that this disc of brilliant white indicates a 
frozen polar region similar to those regions 
which scientists imagined were at the polar ex- 
tremities of the earth. 

Before blindly accepting this view as being 
the correct one, however, let us inquire into a 
few of the details disclosed by telescopic ob- 
servation of the polar regions of Mars. 

[24] 




View of Mars, showing the circular white spot which is an entrance 
to this planet's interior, instead of the so-called polar ice cap, 
thus proving that Mars, the earth, and all other planetary bodies 
of the solar system are hollow and contain a central sun. (Photo- 
graphed by F. A. A. Talbott, Beighton, England.) 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

Suppose, instead of looking at this reproduc- 
tion, we were gazing at the object itself through 
a telescope. We would then be able to see far 
more distinctly something which we can observe 
on the reproduction here shown. That is, the 
"polar snow-cap" — as we may call it for the 
present and until its true nature is demonstrated 
— is far brighter than any other section of the 
planet's surface, including those portions which 
are also covered with ice and snow. In reality 
the brilliancy extends beyond the surface of the 
planet and this fact strikes us as being a very 
difficult thing to explain upon the assumption 
that the disc represents a surface of snow. 

MARS HAS NO POLAR ICE CAPS 

For additional information upon the subject 
let us refer to the reports of Professor Percival 
Lowell who made an historic series of observa- 
tions from the Flagstaff Observatory in Arizona 
and who is, perhaps, the greatest living authority 
on Mars and its mapping out. 

He tells us, in his book entitled "Mars," 
that, as he watched this disc night after night, 
he observed its surface change color in a 
most mysterious manner and, in 1894, great 
shadowy hands were seen to stretch themselves 
across the surface of Mars' "south polar 
snow-cap." These bluish bands occasionally 
widened out into what seemed islands of color 

[27] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

in the midst of the general whiteness and, 
at times, these bands were so numerous that 
he was able to draw a map in which almost 
half of the whole circle is obscured by cloudlike 
bodies. But a more startling observation was 
in store for Professor Lowell. 

MARS MUST HAVE CENTRAL SUN 

On June 7 of the same year (1894) he saw 
suddenly flash out in the midst of Mars' "polar 
snow-cap" two intensely brilliant starlike flashes 
of light which twinkled for a few moments and 
were then again obscured. Nor was this an 
accidental happening due to some trick of the 
atmosphere for N. E. Green — one of the earliest 
astronomers who also mapped out the planet 
Mars — observed in 1877 at Madeira, a single 
starlike gleam appear for a moment in the 
midst of the "polar snow-cap" — and Green him- 
self had been preceded in the observation of this 
phenomenon by Mitchell, another astronomer, 
as far back as 1846. 

Now, there are two notable observations to 
be made of this phenomenon. The first is that 
a star's gleaming, or any other source giving a 
direct beam of light, is quite unthinkable as 
coming from a solid surface such as a snow-cap 
would be; and the second observation is that this 
beam is not a fixed thing such as would be cast 
by an illuminated peak or lighthouse, but is only 

[28] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

observed at rare intervals, the intervals in its 
actual observation from earth being, as we have 
seen, from 1846 to 1877, and then not until 1894. 
What, then, is the real explanation of these 
facts which have hitherto never been satis- 
factorily explained? Simply that the north and 
south polar circles of Mars are — as they are on 
earth — large openings through which gleam the 
rays of the central sun of that planet, those rays 
giving the alleged "polar snow-cap" the extreme 
brightness which it possesses and which is not 
possessed by the surfaces that merely reflect the 
light which comes to Mars from other planets 
and which is, therefore, much dimmer than any 
light would be which came from a source within 
the planet itself. 

CLOUDS INSIDE A PLANET - 

On this basis, too, can be explained the pe- 
riodic cloudings and streaked appearance of the 
"polar snow-cap." The interior of the planet 
will naturally be very cloudy as the inner sun is 
shining and evaporating the inner surface water 
all the time, and the formation of these clouds 
and their rotation from side to side of the planet 
(for they would naturally have this tendency 
just as the sea currents tend to rotate about the 
outer surface of the earth) will cause these 
clouds to emerge through the polar openings 
and cast the very shadows which Professor 

[29] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

Lowell describes in his book in so much detail. 
In other words, those shadows are direct ocular 
evidence of clouds which came from the interior 
of what has hitherto been supposed to have been 
a solid planet. And may it not be possible for 
those clouds to become so dense as to entirely 
obscure the "snow-cap," thus accounting for its 
apparent absence during certain periods? 

MARS' CENTRAL SUN IS SEEN 

But even more direct ocular evidence — in fact 
the evidence of the central sun itself — is given 
us by the observation of that gleam of direct 
light which two observers saw as a single gleam 
and which Professor Lowell saw duplicated, 
probably owing to its being split in two by a 
slight cloud mass. A gleam of light presup- 
poses a source from which it comes and those 
gleams — only observable at rare intervals, when 
the south polar opening of Mars is on a direct 
line with the earth — could have been nothing 
else than direct beams of light from the central 
sun of Mars. If the light were from an outside 
or reflected source it would certainly be ob- 
servable at a much greater variety of positions 
than were these, and it would be a far more 
diffused and milder light than the concentrated 
and sharp beams which Professor Lowell de- 
scribes as being not only bright, but "dazzlingly 

[30] 




Views of Mars taken at the Yerkes observatory, Sept. 28, 1902, 
showing the white circle or so-called snow-cap, projected beyond 
the planet's surface, which precludes all possibility of its being 
snow or ice. 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

bright/' and which even illuminates beyond the 
surface of the planet. 

THE SHADOW OF THE POLAR OPENING 

If the reader will look again at the polar 
"snow-cap" appearing on the photographic re- 
production of Mars he will observe a dark ring 
around it. According to my theory this ring 
is easily explained as the shadow caused by the 
downward curving of the circumference of the 
polar opening. But, prior to my explanation, 
it has been the cause of much uncertainty among 
astronomers. 

The appearance of this shaded ring, and the 
changes of brightness which he observed in the 
so-called polar "snow-cap" itself led Professor 
Lowell to claim that he had discovered on Mars 
what explorers of earth had long expected to 
discover some day at the earthly poles, viz., an 
open polar sea. I have not the slightest doubt 
that the noted observer of Martian conditions 
is partly right in his observations, but I claim 
that the so-called "Sea of Ancient Ice" which 
used to be marked on our polar maps is, in fact, 
not a sea of ice at all, but an open polar sea sur- 
rounding the polar opening. 

WATER ON MARS — WHERE FROM? 

The reader of Lowell's observations of the 
changes observable by telescope around the 

[33] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

Martian polar "snow-cap" must admit that 
Lowell has discovered water there, but where 
does this water come from? We know that the 
surface corresponding to seas on Mars are dry 
deserts most of the time, and that the whole case 
which Lowell makes out for life on Mars rests 
upon the presence there of artificial canals which 
carry the water from the polar regions over the 
surface of the planet. 

I do not wish to enter into this canal contro- 
versy, but, if the amount of water on Mars is so 
small by this time that it has to be carefully 
drawn from the polar regions in canals — as if 
it were a precious liquid — and if all the water 
which once filled the seas has been, by this time, 
absorbed by the planet or evaporated into a dry- 
ing atmosphere, then there would no longer be 
a water supply for Mars' polar "snow-caps." 
The fact that there is open water there any way, 
and enough apparently to supply a canal sys- 
tem, is proof positive that the water has a source, 
and that source can be no other than an interior 
Martian surface lighted by a central sun whose 
rays we have seen to be observable at times. This 
interior surface would naturally be provided 
with vast seas and rivers and able to supply, 
through the polar openings, the overflow of 
water which is undoubtedly there and which 
cannot be accounted for in any other way than 
that which I have here laid down. 

[34] 









The earth as it would appear if viewed from a great distance, 
showing the north polar opening to the planet's interior which 
is hollow and contains a central sun instead of an ocean of 
liquid lava. 



A J O U R N EY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

It would, therefore, seem that the ingenious 
theory of canals on Mars was only tenable if its 
author were willing to admit that Mars is hol- 
low and that the so-called "snow-caps" of Mars 
are immense openings leading into the interior 
of the planet. But, on the earth itself, there is 
abundant evidence in support of my theory. 

WHAT DOES THE OPEN POLAR 

SEA MEAN? 

As we have already seen in the considerations 
adduced above, an open polar sea is something 
which is more than mere supposition. Greely, 
Nansen, Kane and Peary have all spoken of the 
indications of this as they have observed them 
in their voyages. At a certain point in their 
explorations many Arctic explorers have en- 
countered a gradual breaking up of the ice, due 
to rising temperatures and finally found them- 
selves surrounded by a large body of open water. 

In the first volume of his "Farthest North," 
Nansen has quite a lot to say about this finding 
of clear water as he proceeds northward. Near 
the end of his second volume he even speaks of 
mists coming from the far north — a sure sign of 
the existence of a warmer region. On page 227 
of his first volume, Nansen tells us how his 
course gradually became freer from ice as he 
headed northward. When he reached 75J de- 
grees north he still had "open water and dark 

[37] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

sky to the north and west.' 5 The dark sky it may 
be explained is an indication of open water for 
many miles ahead, as a surface of ice is always 
reflected in the sky, to which it gives a light 
color. A page or two further on Nansen de- 
scribes his course as "on the north, steadily north 
with a good wind, as fast as steam and sail can 
take us, and open sea mile after mile, watch 
after watch, through these unknown regions, al- 
ways clearer and clearer of ice, one might al- 
most say: 'How long will this last?' The eye 
always turns to the northward as one paces the 
bridge. It is gazing into the future. But there 
is always the same dark sky ahead, which means 
open sea." A little later he says: "We saw no 
land the whole day but we had fog and thick 
weather all morning and forenoon." 

NANSEN IS BAFFLED 

Shortly after that Nansen made fast to a large 
ice floe which he imagined to be the advance 
guard of the solid polar ice, but it evidently was 
not, for three weeks later he was still drifting 
north with this floe through a lane of clear water 
that stretched clear to the north with the cus- 
tomary dark sky indicating its indefinite exten- 
sion, and Nansen refers to the situation as "ex- 
traordinary." Furthermore, he found at this 
point that he was in the grip of a south-going 
current when, according to all his theories, a 

[38] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

north-going current should have been encoun- 
tered. He says (page 201) : "I do not under- 
stand this steady drift southward * * * What 
can be the reason of it? With all my informa- 
tion, all my reasoning, all my putting of two 
and two together, I cannot account for any 
south-going current here — there ought to be a 
north-going one. If the current runs south here, 
how is that great open sea to be explained over 
which we steamed across in a northerly direc- 
tion?" 

THERE WAS NO ICE IN THE NORTH 

The reader is asked to note here that this 
south-going current carried no ice with it, 
proving that it came from a source where there 
was no ice, and not from the traditional north 
pole covered with eternal ice and snow. Of 
course we cannot undertake here to explain just 
where Nansen was. He admits that the drift 
of the various currents and other factors were 
such that he was not sure of his precise position, 
but it is very probable that he, as well as other 
explorers in the north, were actually sailing 
around and over the great lip of the northern 
polar opening. 

Kane gives us even more dramatic evidence 
than Nansen. In the account of his second 
Arctic expedition he speaks (page 309) of ob- 
servations made on Cape Independence, latitude 

[39] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

81 degrees 22 minutes north. At a height of 
500 feet above the sea level no ice could be seen 
in a northerly direction; the channel approach- 
ing the cape was free from ice, and the coast-ice 
along the sides of this channel had been "com- 
pletely destroyed by thaw and water action, 
while an unbroken belt of solid ice extended to 
the south." The explanation of that is obviously 
the coming down of warmer water from the 
north. It so happened that Kane had no sooner 
made these observations than "a gale from the 
northwest of fifty-four hours' duration brought 
a heavy sea from that quarter without disclosing 
any drift or any other ice." 

WHERE DO THESE ANIMALS LIVE? 

But the far north contains other indications 
besides warmth which go to show that it is the 
entrance to a new and more hospitable region 
than explorers have imagined. The abundance 
of life which is found there would certainly be 
a strange phenomenon if the north pole was 
really what it is supposed to be. 

On page 330 of his "Three Years of Arctic 
Service," speaking of conditions near the 80th 
parallel of latude, Kane mentions a long list of 
animals seen, including traces of hares, lem- 
ming, foxes, musk-oxen, bears and ptarmigan. 
This game, it should be noted, was found in the 
early summer, and it is the unanimous testimony 

[40] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

of explorers that it migrates to the north in the 
winter. If that be the case — and it is absolutely 
certain that this animal life does not come south 
— there must be somewhere for it to go. As 
the reader must admit that this reasoning is both 
logical and suggestive of but one conclusion, let 
us then follow it up with something that is more 
than merely suggestive. 

MYSTERIOUS PARADISE OF FLOWERS 

In 1818 Sir John Ross first reported that cer- 
tain sections of the extreme north cliffs were 
so lavishly covered with what was apparently 
a red snow that the red patches could be seen 
for a distance of ten miles. The nature of this 
red material of course excited a good deal of 
discussion. In Kane's "Three Years of Arctic 
Service" he mentions seeing these cliffs, and also 
seeing patches of red snow which had drifted 
away from them as he thought, and he mentions 
the fact that the vegetable origin of the coloring 
matter had been decided beyond dispute by Dr. 
Robert Brown. The same phenomenon is also 
vouched for by La Chambre in his "Andree's 
Baloon Expedition." According to La Chambre : 
"On the isle of Amsterdam the snow is tinted 
with red for a considerable distance, and the 
savants are collecting it to examine it micro- 
scopically." 

[41] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

From the foregoing there is no doubt that 
this vegetable matter is the pollen of a plant, 
and there are no patches of flowering plants 
in the Arctic regions which are large enough to 
give of! such enormous masses of pollen as 
would be sufficient to cover whole regions. As 
a matter of fact, for flowering plants in such 
profusion there is required a climate having an 
abundance of sunlight, as it is only the large 
branch of the vegetable kingdom which propa- 
gates itself by spores, and not by cross fertiliza- 
tion through pollen that grows in sunless regions. 

WHERE DID THIS COME FROM? 

But the red patches of snow are not the only 
curious things observed by polar explorers in 
the Arctic regions. When Greely's men were 
wintering in the Arctic in 1881 a party of them 
explored the cliffs near St. Patrick's Bay 
(Greely, Vol. 1, page 100). Speaking of the 
exploration of two of the men, Greely says: "In 
the search, however, Private Connell and Fred- 
erick found a large coniferous tree on the beach 
just above the extreme high-water mark. It was 
about thirty inches in circumference, some thirty 
feet long, and had apparently been carried to 
that point by a current within a couple of years. 
A portion of it was cut up for firewood, and for 
the first time in that valley a bright, cheery 
campfire gave comfort to man." 

[42] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

Now the fact that this was fresh wood, not 
too saturated with water to burn freely is a most 
significant one. Where did the tree come from? 
We have not been told of forests in the Arctic 
regions by any explorer so far, and the tree was 
evidently not a relic of any geological times 
when the polar regions are supposed to have 
been tropical. Whence then did it come? I think 
the argument of these pages furnishes an answer 
to that, as it does to other unsolved problems of 
the Arctic. But the whole matter is easily 
enough clinched. There is no need to argue 
over matters that may be thought refutable by 
the reader who has been trained in the orthodox 
ideas about what constitutes the Arctic regions. 

THE MAMMOTH AND THE MASTODON 

I have spoken of a supposed time when the 
Arctic regions were the tropical part of the 
earth, One of the strongest proofs in support 
of my theory as outlined in the preceding pages 
has to do with a really wonderful Arctic dis- 
covery that is generally explained by invoking 
the conception of a once tropical region — a con- 
ception which I am not affirming or denying at 
this point. The proof referred to is this: Every 
reader of these pages is presumed to be familiar 
with the accounts of finding fossil remains of 
the mammoth and mastodon — two elephantlike 

[43] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

animals but larger than any known animal of to- 
day — which inhabited tropical countries in an- 
cient times. The discovery of such remains in 
the regions near the poles is advanced as proof 
that those regions were tropical once. But as 
early as 1806 and at intervals ever since then, 
something much more remarkable than mam- 
moth bones have been found throughout the 
frozen north ; that is, complete carcasses of these 
animals in the freshest possible condition have 
been discovered. 

THE MAMMOTH BANQUET 

The climax from the standpoint of dramatic 
interest in these stories came when it was re- 
ported several years ago in the newspapers that 
a professor of St. Petersburg had given a won- 
derful banquet to a number of his scientific 
friends in which everything eaten was supposed 
to have been thousands of years old. Wheat 
from Egyptian tombs and other preserved prod- 
ucts from the ruins of Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum were among the items served, and the 
piece de resistance was fresh steak from the 
newly-discovered carcass of a mammoth. 

I hope to convince the reader in the next few 
paragraphs that one item in this feast — the mam- 
moth — was not so old as it was thought to be, 

[44] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

but let us first refer to a few well-authenticated 
facts regarding the finding of these immense 
quadrupeds. 

CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE 

Is the claim that the mammoth are so found, 
a genuine one? For answer I first quote Dr. 
Eberhard Frass who used the following lan- 
guage in an article in "Die Woche," Berlin, on 
March 9 of the present year. The English quo- 
tation is taken from the Scientific American 
Supplement in whose pages it was reproduced 
in English. The German scientist says: "Mam- 
moth is known to us better than any of its con- 
temporaries, not only from finds of teeth and 
bone, but * * * by carcasses completely pre- 
served even to the skin and hair, in the Siberian 
ice." That the flesh of these finds is fresh is suf- 
ficiently shown by the fact that it has been eaten 
at a banquet. That that was not a rare case, but 
is common, is shown by the facts about to be 
enumerated. 

BETWEEN THE MAMMOTH'S TEETH 

We have referred to the first recorded find 
of a fresh mammoth as being in 1806. That find 
was made by a Mr. Adams in the employ of 
the St. Petersburg museum. The carcass was 
no sooner exposed than bears took the first op- 
portunity to devour what they could reach. 

[45] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

Perhaps the most remarkable case, however, is 
of the mammoth found by Professor Henz of 
the St. Petersburg Zoological Museum in 1901 
which was so perfectly preserved that its flesh 
was not only in perfect condition, but its stomach 
was full of undigested food, and the discoverer 
even found traces of its last meal between its 
teeth — and these traces were readily identifiable 
as vegetable matter because they had not de- 
composed in the slightest degree. 

This statement is so extraordinary as to chal- 
lenge credulity, and I, therefore, refer the 
reader to the pages of George Frederick 
Wright's "Asiatic Russia," where this discovery 
is detailed in the actual words of Professor 
Henz himself. 

WHY THE MAMMOTH MEAT WAS FRESH 

Now what is the bearing of all this upon my 
theory? Simply this: I claim that it is impossi- 
ble for an animal living in a sub-tropical 
region — or even in a region which is bordering 
on the cold — to fall into a bog or gully and die 
there and lie there until the climate became such 
that ice covered the body and then be found 
to be in a perfectly preserved condition at the 
conclusion of the entire process of slow refrig- 
eration. I claim that if these animals lived in a 
certain climate which was certainly not the 
present one — for they would be living still — 

[46] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

and died by any means, and were afterward 
encased in ice, they would practically decom- 
pose in the interval between their death and 
their encasement in the ice. Even if this process 
be assumed to be very rapid; even if we suppose 
— as some investigators have been driven to sup- 
pose — that the mammoth inhabited Siberia after 
it had become cold, there could not conceivably 
be such perfect preservation of the carcass as 
to avoid the decomposition of even the food be- 
tween the teeth — this particular process being 
only a matter of hours as the mouth is the seat 
of great bacterial activity. 

WHAT THE MAMMOTH PROVES 

I claim that the only rational explanation of 
these discoveries is that the mammoth was alive 
after the Arctic regions had reached their cold- 
est, and that the carcasses now being discovered 
are those of animals which have fallen into ice 
crevasses after the latter had been formed, and 
were frozen to death instantly. Only on this 
assumption can we explain the entire absence of 
decomposition. But, as these mammoth do not 
live in the Arctic regions now, they must, there- 
fore, live in the sun-lit interior of the earth. 
Being by nature wanderers and perhaps, by 
gradual adaptation, fitted themselves for a colder 
climate than the sub-tropical (those found in 
Siberia had thick hair) they have taken to living 

[47] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

near the polar openings. For this reason it is 
quite possible that they sometimes wander too 
far from their habitats ; become stranded on de- 
tached ice floes; or fall into crevasses in glaciers, 
and are, in that way, carried to the positions in 
which they have been found by modern ex- 
plorers. This theory — and this theory alone — 
fits all the facts of these discoveries. 

THE AURORA EXPLAINED 

A test of the truth of any theory is found in 
asking of it whether it solves all the problems 
arising from the phenomenon for which the 
theory attempts to account. It must cover, in 
other words, all the facts in its province. 

To show the reader how my theory makes 
good on that criterion I shall explain one of the 
standing polar puzzles — the Aurora Borealiis 
and the Aurora Australis — sometimes spoken of 
as the Northern and Southern Lights respect- 
ively. 

Suppose we are in the polar latitudes and it 
is gloomy enough for the lights in the sky to be 
seen clearly. Suddenly we notice in the sky a 
burst of pale gleams of light which may point 
toward the zenith in great arrowlike beams par- 
allel to one another, or may diverge like the rays 
of the sun, and alternately fade and increase in 
brightness, pass out altogether, rekindle, waver, 
undulate, and altogether give a varied display 

[48] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

of intensity and change of position. Often the 
beams are in the form of a curtain, which seems 
to undulate and waver as if a breeze were blow- 
ing upon it. Sometimes the rays stream out in 
the form of a corona; sometimes they are red- 
dish in hue and, at other times, colorless; often 
a strawlike color characterizes them. 

ELECTRICITY DOES NOT EXPLAIN 

Now the orthodox explanation of these occur- 
rences is that they are caused in some mysterious 
manner by electricity, but just how, nobody pre- 
tends to be able to say. No theories advanced 
thus far on the subject have given universal 
satisfaction, which is not surprising since they 
are based on a fundamentally false conception. 
As a matter of fact, by observation the aurora is 
always confined to the polar region ; several ex- 
plorers have noted that it did not affect the mag- 
netic needle when it occurred ; we have seen that 
its color varied constantly, and that it lasted for 
varying periods of time. Therefore it is obvious 
that such a manifestation is to be attributed to 
a source other than electricity and, on my theory, 
we have all the material, to account for this 
phenomenon. 

THE CENTRAL SUN'S CORONA 

According to my theory the central sun of the 
earth is surrounded by a corona whose color and 

[49] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

activity is similar to the corona which surrounds 
the outer sun and which is observable through 
an astronomical telescope. Some of the variable 
beams of light from the corona of the interior 
sun naturally pass through the polar openings 
when not prevented by interior clouds. If the 
outside of the earth is in brilliant sunlight and 
no clouds are present above the polar openings 
it is evident that no aurora will be observed. 
But suppose these beams of light from the in- 
terior sun come out through the polar opening 
when the earth is shrouded in gloom, and when 
there is a cloudy or dense condition of the atmos- 
phere at a certain height above the polar open- 
ing? Then these beams will be reflected upon 
the layer of dense atmosphere and, according as 
conditions vary in the upper and uninterrupted 
air, and also as they vary in the atmosphere of 
the interior through which the beams pass on 
their way to the polar openings, so will the 
manifestations of the aurora, vary in brightness, 
color, duration, apparent height from the earth, 
and depth. 

WHAT MAY BE SEEN IN THE EARTH'S 

INTERIOR 

Having submitted in the foregoing pages 
what I consider is evidence ample to support 
my theory of the manner in which the earth and 
all planetary bodies of the solar system were 

[50] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

evolved from nebulae into hollow spheres, each 
containing a central sun and having two polar 
openings, and having also discussed at length the 
phenomenon and other physical conditions pe- 
culiar to the polar regions, let us now turn our 
entire attention once more to the interior of the 
earth and ascertain what may be found there, 
according to my theory, by taking the following 
imaginary journey. 

Starting, let us say, at the Arctic Circle and 
proceeding northward over any one of the sev- 
eral routes already traversed by polar expedi- 
tions, we finally reach the point marked A in the 
diagram shown on page 55. From this point 
onward and around the semi-circle to the point 
marked D there are observed, as has already 
been recorded by polar explorers, an increasing 
number of certain changes and manifestations 
peculiar to this region, such as the Aurora 
Borealis; the ice pressure observed during still 
tide and calm weather; the rising temperature 
and rapidly diminishing quantity of ice encoun- 
tered, as one travels toward the supposed actual 
site of the pole, until open water entirely free 
from ice surrounds the voyager; the presence 
of a south-going current of water instead of one 
flowing northward; the large tracts of snow and 
ice covered with flower pollen when there are 
no patches of flowering plants in the Arctic re- 
gions large enough to give off such enormous 

[53] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

quantities of pollen as would suffice to color 
large areas, and when the nearest trees and floral 
growth on the exterior surface of the earth are 
hundreds of miles distant; the sudden arising 
of terrific winds when the sky is clear; the air 
which is sufficiently warm to form an almost 
continuous fog; the finding of certain migratory 
animals, including traces of hares, foxes, lem- 
ming, bears, and musk oxen, which could not 
possibly have come from warmer lands in the 
distant south across the immense fields of ice; 
and last, but not least, by any means, the dis- 
covery of extremely well-preserved bodies of 
mammoth in icebergs when this animal is sup- 
posed to have been extinct for 20,000 years and 
icebergs in these regions cannot possibly remain 
intact for that length of time. 

WHY THE NEEDLE DIPS 

All these and many more so-called incompre- 
hensible things relating to the polar regions, 
including the true location of the center of 
gravity and the peculiar action of the compass 
that has been recorded by explorers when in 
these latitudes, I have above attempted and will 
hereafter endeavor to explain in a manner that 
should carry conviction and enable the reader 
to gain a clearer conception of phenomena and 
conditions within the polar regions of the earth. 

Having reached the point marked "D" on the 

[54] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

diagram, we are now half way round the semi- 
circle, or at the apex of the earth's crust or shell. 
Here the magnetic needle of the compass is seen 
to dip and oscillate in a peculiar manner, owing 
to its being directly opposite to the point marked 
"I," where the magnetic force is focused in the 
same manner as the magnetic properties of an 
ordinary horseshoe magnet are strongest at the 
end of either pole. 

FIRST VIEW OF THE CENTRAL SUN 

At the point marked "D" we are able to catch 
our first glimpse of the corona that surrounds 
the central sun of the earth, because this sun is, 
according to my theory, approximately only 
3,300 miles distant from that point. Therefore 
it appears reasonable to believe that the corona 
could be seen and would have the appearance 
of a sun rising above the horizon under favor- 
able atmospheric conditions. 

Continuing our journey around the semi- 
circle of the earth's crust and, in reality, having 
pursued a downward or southerly course since 
leaving the point marked "D," we arrive at the 
point marked "E." Here, according to my 
theory, it is possible for us to see the central sun 
in its entirety, and to realize that we are actually 
gazing upon the source of life and energy of an 
interior world, similar to our own, and but 800 

[57] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

miles distant from us through the earth's crust 
or shell. 

As we leave the point marked "E" and con- 
tinue downward, the central sun will appear to 
be rising farther and farther above the horison 
until, at last, it is directly overhead or in the 
zenith. At this point we will have traversed 
the entire semi-circle of the earth's crust or shell 
and actually have reached the interior surface 
of the earth, after having traveled 1,200 miles 
from the point marked "A" on the diagram, or 
the exterior surface of the earth. 

NO NIGHT NOR SEASONS 

Resuming our journey southward upon the 
interior surface of the earth, it appears reason- 
able to believe that, as I have no evidence to the 
contrary and much to support my theory of a 
central sun, we shall, with one important excep- 
tion, find conditions somewhat similar to those 
upon the earth's exterior surface. The excep- 
tion noted is that the position of the interior sun 
remains unchanged in its relation to the earth; 
consequently there is no night or change of sea- 
son within the interior of the earth. It is quite 
evident that a condition of this kind would be 
productive of all forms of both animal and plant 
life to a much higher degree than obtains on the 
outside of the earth with its four seasons and 
extreme changes of temperature in certain zones. 

[58] 



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A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

On account of this equable temperature it is ap- 
parent that the central sun provides the means 
necessary for propagating vegetable life to a 
more luxuriant degree than is possible on the 
exterior surface of the earth; that the various 
species of land animals which may be found on 
the interior surface are, through the action of 
the central sun upon the interior plant life, 
developed to a more prodigious size as a result 
of the more abundant vegetation ; and that this 
excessive growth is due to the increased amount 
of moisture formed by the interior sun's unin- 
terrupted radiation. 

THE NATURE OF LIFE IN THE 
INTERIOR WORLD 

Although it is not the purpose of this article 
to discuss other than probable facts in connec- 
tion with and supported by my theory of a cen- 
tral sun, let us pause to speculate upon the 
nature of phenomena and life that may be en- 
countered in this interior world. Here exists 
one unchanging season and a continuous period 
of daylight, except when certain parts of the 
earth's interior surface may be partially ob- 
scured by intervening clouds or mists raised by 
the sun's constant rays. Here the heat emanating 
from the central sun does not materially affect 
the temperature to such an extent that either 
animal or plant life is placed in jeopardy, be- 

[61] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

cause any abnormal condition of this heat would 
be dispersed or modified by inrushing currents 
of cold air through either or both entrances to 
the earth's interior. 

Here, indeed, we may expect to find a new 
world — a world the surface of which is probably 
subdivided, like ours, into continents, oceans, 
seas, lakes, and rivers. Here, through the heat 
of the interior sun, plant life may exceed in size 
and luxuriance any vegetation that ever grew 
upon the outside surface of the earth. Here 
may be found strange animals of every descrip- 
tion; some of them even larger, perhaps, than 
the prehistoric mammoth or mastodon, on ac- 
count of the abundant supply of vegetation, and 
others of species unrecorded by zoologists. 
Here, also, may tread the feet of a race of peo- 
ple whose existence is entirely unknown or 
hitherto unsuspected by us. In fact the existence 
of an interior world, such as described, leads us 
to consider possibilities as infinite in number 
and character as those suggested at various times 
by eminent astronomers and other learned stu- 
dents of the planets adjacent to the one upon 
which we live. 

THROUGH TO THE SOUTH POLE 

Therefore, let us return from the realm of idle 
speculation regarding the phenomena and life 
that may be encountered in this unexplored re- 

[62] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

gion and continue our journey southward upon 
the earth's interior surface until the semi-circle 
at the southern polar opening is reached. Here 
it is probable we shall find that conditions are 
practically the same as those encountered when 
the central sun was first observed by us to be in 
the zenith. As we proceed around the semi- 
circle of the earth's crust, however, the sun will 
appear to be going down behind us until, at 
length, it disappears altogether below the hori- 
zon as we finally reach a point corresponding 
to "D" on the semi-circle traversed when enter- 
ing the earth's interior through the north polar 
entrance. 

Until more data concerning the central re- 
gion of the Antartic Circle is obtained than 
already have been recorded by others, I am war- 
ranted in claiming that conditions there will be 
found to be, with probably a few minor excep- 
tions, similar to those within the central region 
of the Arctic Circle. For this reason the re- 
mainder of our journey through the southern 
entrance to the earth's exterior surface will 
doubtless not be unlike that to the interior of the 
earth through the northern entrance. Having 
completed our journey and emerged through the 
south polar opening, I respectfully submit here- 
with certain additional observations in support 

[63] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

of my theory that the earth is a hollow sphere 

with two polar openings and contains a central 

sun. 

HOW OTHERWISE EXPLAIN ARCTIC 
MYSTERIES 

Unless the earth does contain a central sun 
which produces and maintains vegetation, the 
origin of coal, wood, pollen from plants, etc., 
found by explorers upon the ice and snow within 
the Arctic Circle must forever remain a mys- 
tery, as it is admitted that such products of vege- 
table life could not have been carried toward 
the polar region when the ice is constantly 
moving away from it, and the nearest trees on 
the exterior surface of the earth are hundreds 
of miles distant from the localities where these 
material evidences of plant life are discovered. 

As the quantity of ice diminishes rapidly as 
one travels toward the polar regions, until an 
open sea is encountered, it is evident that there 
must be a source of heat for producing an in- 
crease in temperature, and this source cannot be 
other than a material sun in the center of the 
earth. 

As terrific winds suddenly arise within the 
assumed locality of the poles when the sky is 
clear, it is apparent that hot air must be sup- 
planting cold air somewhere within that region, 
and such a change can be ascribed only to cur- 
rents of cold air rushing into the polar openings 

[64] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

to modify or disperse the heat produced by an 
interior sun. As the air within the immediate 
vicinity of the so-called poles possesses sufficient 
warmth to form an almost continuous fog, it is 
evident that heat sufficient to produce this con- 
dition must come from within the earth through 
an opening in the earth's crust or shell, as the 
rays of the exterior sun do not strike the region 
so affected. 

As there have been found within the polar 
regions, certain migratory animals, which could 
not possibly have come from the more temperate 
lands in the distant south across the Arctic fields 
of ice, the presence of these animals can be ex- 
plained only by admitting that they originally 
inhabited the interior of the earth and migrated 
through the polar opening to the place where 
found. 

Unless the earth is a hollow sphere into which 
entrance may be had through an opening within 
each polar region, no plausible explanation of 
the peculiar action of the compass, that has been 
recorded by explorers when in those latitudes, 
can be advanced. Admitting that such polar 
openings into the earth's interior do exist, then 
the dipping of the compass needle is readily 
explained by stating that the compass was at the 
apex of the earth's crust or shell, or midway 
around the semi-circle where the north pole of 
gravity is located; consequently the needle 

[65] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

would dip until the compass had been carried 
past the apex of the earth's crust, or farther into 
the polar opening, when the needle would grad- 
ually assume its natural position. 

AN EXPEDITION TO OPEN UP 
THIS REALM 

Such in brief is an outline of my theory of the 
interior of the earth. If it be true, an expedi- 
tion of scientists who penetrated the great ice 
barriers of the north or south would find a 
warmer climate beyond them, with open water 
to carry them over the lip of the aperture into 
the earth's interior. Here they would find land 
and water like our outer surface, but the land 
would be warmed by a perpetual sun instead of 
by a periodic one. Hence the vegetation would 
be far more luxuriant than on the earth's ex- 
terior surface and it would naturally support 
a larger animal population. Our explorers 
would sail or go overland as conditions war- 
ranted right through the length of this interior 
and come out at the other polar orifice. 

Numerous polar expeditions have been made, 
both by private interests and those fostered by 
governments, each costing thousands of dollars 
and many lives. The scientific world expected 
much to result from those various expeditions, 
especially from the discovery of the North and 
South Poles respectively. Their alleged discov- 

[66] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

ery is now a matter of history, and yet the phe- 
nomena of the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora 
Australis and many other problems mentioned 
in the preceding pages of this book, are still a 
mystery and will remain a mystery if we cease 
our efforts to get at the facts. The whole truth 
apparently has not yet been revealed. 

The former illogical theories have been 
taught and accepted for the lack of better ones. 
The results gleaned from all polar expeditions 
thus far, have been tabulated and analyzed, and 
yet many important questions remain unex- 
plained and unanswered. The world is still hun- 
gering for the truth. Can we afford to drop the 
matter now, with the search for the truth only 
begun? Rather — let my theory be the beacon 
light for all future expeditions. 

With the advent of air navigation let us con- 
tinue to improve and perfect this mode of travel, 
which will be the means of overcoming the al- 
most insurmountable obstacles encountered by 
former explorers. This mode of travel can be 
made successful, safeguarding it by the estab- 
lishing of permanent stations for provisions and 
repairs, at convenient intervals, thus enabling 
a party of scientists to negotiate the dangerous 
barriers of ice, direct to — and through the 
polar openings — through the interior of the 
earth and thus prove this newest and most 
logical theory of the earth's formation. 

[67] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

If explorers from the United States were to 
achieve this feat, the glory to this nation would 
be immense. If any nation were to attempt it, 
and if the discovery were to be followed by 
justice in the use of the new domain, justice to 
any inhabitants it might be found to shelter, as 
well as justice between the nations that might 
want to take advantage of its resources, then a 
new chapter would be begun in the world's 
history. 

DISCOVERY OF INTERIOR MAY 
BE PROVIDENTIAL 

While we have not yet exhausted the re- 
sources of the outside of the globe, we can see 
in imagination the time — not far distant — when 
the outside will be too thickly populated and too 
thoroughly drained of its resources. Thus the 
discovery of the new continents may be due to 
be made at a providential time. At all events I 
think the prospects are sufficiently interesting 
to justify me in calling upon men of science of 
public spirit everywhere — throughout the 
United States as well as throughout the world 
— to take this matter up ; to discuss it thoroughly 
and without prejudice; to get behind the idea 
and push it; to interest their friends in it; to 
look forward to, and to help forward any move- 
ment such as an American expedition or an in- 
ternational expedition, to verify and map out 

[68] 



A JOURNEY TO THE EARTH'S INTERIOR 

the discoveries here predicted through the 
means of reason and observation. The time is 
ripe for such a move. It should be made in a 
spirit of friendliness between the nations in- 
volved, and should be free from national jeal- 
ousies and the desire of gaining undue advan- 
tages. 

I call upon every reader of this book who is 
convinced of the truth of my arguments to enlist 
in this crusade for the discovery of a new world. 

THE END 



[69] 



OCT « ^